X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS)

X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS, also known as Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis – ESCA) is used to determine the electronic structure of a sample surface under UHV conditions. Based on the outer photoelectric effect, electrons of surface-near atoms are emitted when the sample is exposed to X-radiation. The analysis of the kinetic energy of the emitted electrons gives information about the chemical composition and binding properties of the sample.


Further information:

M. Henzler, W. Göpel, Oberflächenphysik des Festkörpers, Teubner-Studienbücher: Physik, Teubner, Stuttgart, 1994, 2. Auflage., S.264 ff.