Many redox-active compounds involve in their electron transfer process the concomitant binding or the release of protons. Among the compounds that involve the exchange of protons during their redox processes one may identify quinones, flavins organic dyes and more, FigureXX. Different electrode supports were modified with proton-dependent redox relays, and the pKa values, and the potential ranges at which the redox processes proceed were found to be controlled by the substituents on the redox relays.300

Accordingly, Au electrodes will be modified by proton-dependent redox relays, Figure XY. The potential-induced pH changes of the electrolyte solution as a result of the redox processes will be examined in miniaturized electrochemical cells in the presence of pH indicators.