Dr. Matthé Scholten

Institute for Medical Ethics and History of Medicine
Ruhr University Bochum
Malakowturm
Markstraße 258a
44799 Bochum
Germany

Tel | 49 (0)234 32-28628
Fax | 49 (0)234 32-14205
matthe.scholten@ruhr-uni-bochum.de

 

My main interests are in ethics in psychiatry, moral responsibility and Kantian ethics. Together with Jakov Gather, I coordinate the Bochum SALUS Project, a large and interdisciplinary research project on coercion in psychiatry. Before that, I worked on the project ENSURE and was the principal investigator for the project HumanMeD.

I received my Ph.D. in philosophy from the University of Amsterdam with a dissertation on moral responsibility and Kantian ethics. Alongside my B.A. and M.A. studies, I worked as an auxiliary nurse in a rehabilitation center.

Publications

 

Books

  • Scholten, M., and J. Haberstroh. Under contract. Entscheidungsassistenz und Einwilligungsfähigkeit bei Demenz: Ein Manual für die klinische Praxis und Forschung [Supported decision-making and competence assessment for persons with dementia: A manual for clinical treatment and research]. Stuttgart: Kohlhammer.
  • Scholten, M. 2016. Reminders of Duty: A Kantian Theory of Blame. University of Amsterdam. (PhD thesis)

 

Special issues

  • “Human Rights and Mental Health: Current Developments in Competence Assessment and Supported Decision-Making.” Frontiers in Psychiatry. (Coordination; in collaboration with Jochen Vollmann, Scott Kim and Penny Weller) Link

 

Articles in peer reviewed journals

  • Scholten, M. Forthcoming. "A Kantian quality of will account of excuses." Inquiry.
  • Scholten, M., J. Gather, and J. Vollmann. Forthcoming. “Equality in the informed consent process: Competence to consent, substitute decision-making, and discrimination of persons with mental disorders.” Journal of Medicine and Philosophy.
  • Scholten, M., A. Gieselmann, J. Gather, and J. Vollmann. 2019. "Psychiatric advance directives under the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities: Why advance instructions should be able to override current preferences." Frontiers in Psychiatry 10 (631). https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2019.00631. Link
  • Scholten, M. 2019. "Kantian constructivism and the Reinhold-Sidgwick objection." European Journal of Philosophy. https://doi.org/10.1111/ejop.12463. Link
  • Gather, J., M. Scholten, T. Henking, J. Vollmann, and G. Juckel. 2019. "Wodurch wird die geschlossene Tür ersetzt? Konzeptionelle und ethische Überlegungen zu offenen Unterbringungsformen und psychologischem Druck [What replaces the locked door? Conceptual and ethical considerations regarding open door policies, formal coercion, and the use of treatment pressures]." Der Nervenarzt 90 (7): 690-694. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00115-019-0717-3. Link
  • Haberstroh, J., M. Scholten, T. S. Wied, and A. Gieselmann. 2018. "Forschung bei fraglicher Einwilligungsfähigkeit: ethische Herausforderungen und Entscheidungsassistenz [Research with persons of uncertain competence: Ethical challenges and supported decision-making]." Forschung. Politik - Strategie - Management 2/3: 41-46. Link
  • Scholten, M., A. Gieselmann, J. Gather, and J. Vollmann. 2018. "Advance research directives in Germany: A proposal for a disclosure standard." GeroPsych: The Journal of Gerontopsychology and Geriatric Psychiatry 31 (2): 77-86. https://doi.org/10.1024/1662-9647/a000184. Link
  • Scholten, M., and J. Gather. 2018. "Adverse consequences of article 12 of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities for persons with mental disabilities and an alternative way forward." Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (4): 226-233. https://doi.org/10.1136/medethics-2017-104414. Link
  • Scholten, M. 2016. "Schizophrenia and moral responsibility: A Kantian essay." Philosophia 44 (1): 205-225. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11406-015-9685-4. Link

 

Book chapters and articles in edited volumes

  • Gather, J., and M. Scholten. Forthcoming. “Ethisches Spannungsfeld – Patientenselbstbestimmung und professionelle Fürsorge [Ethical conflict – autonomy and beneficence].” In Springer Reference Pflege – Therapie – Gesundheit: Ethik im Gesundheitswesen, edited by A. Riedel, and S. Lehmeyer. Springer.
  • Scholten, M. Forthcoming. "Why human dignity cannot be the basis of human rights, at least not on Kantian grounds." In Reason, Normativity and Law: New Essays in Kantian Philosophy, edited by R. Demiray and A. Pinheiro Walla. Cardiff: University of Wales Press.
  • Scholten, M. 2019. "Kant: The evil in all of us." In The Routledge Handbook on the Philosophy of Evil, edited by S. De Wijze and T. Nys, 109-121. London: Routledge. Link
  • Scholten, M. 2018. "Moral worth and moral responsibility." In Proceedings of the 12th International Kant Congress, edited by V. L. Waibel, M. Ruffing, and D. Wagner, 2165-2172. Berlin: De Gruyter. https://doi.org/110.1515/9783110467888-207. Link
  • Scholten, M., and J. Vollmann. 2017. "Patientenselbstbestimmung und Selbstbestimmungsfähigkeit [Patient autonomy and competence to consent]." In Ethik in der Psychiatrie: Ein Praxisbuch, edited by Jochen Vollmann, 26-34. Köln: Psychiatrie Verlag. Link

 

Commentaries and perspectives in peer reviewed journals

  • Scholten, M., J. Gather, and J. Vollmann. 2020. "The narrative coherence standard adds either too much, or nothing at all." AJOB Neuroscience 11 (1): 38-40. https://doi.org/10.1080/21507740.2019.1704923. Link
  • Scholten, M., and J. Vollmann. 2019. "Research with persons under involuntary commitment: Ethical issues surrounding competence and voluntariness." Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics 4 (5): 475-478. https://doi.org/10.1177/1556264619847322a. Link
  • Gieselmann, A., S. Efkemann, and M. Scholten. 2019. "Qualitative research with vulnerable persons: How to ensure that burdens and benefits are proportional and fairly distributed." Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics 14 (5): 479-482. https://doi.org/10.1177/1556264619847322b. Link
  • Gieselmann, A., M. Scholten, J. Gather, and J. Vollmann. 2019. "Forschungsvorausverfügungen bei Demenz: Medizinethische Überlegungen zur Aufklärungspflicht [Advance research directives in the context of dementia research: Ethical reflections on the disclosure requirement]." Fortschritte der Neurologie Psychiatrie 87 (4): 255-258. https://doi.org/10.1055/a-0664-7980. Link
  • Scholten, M., and J. Vollmann. 2018. "Feelings and desires are not the same as treatment preferences: Why the healthcare decision-making framework applied to adolescents should not be applied to persons in the minimally conscious state." AJOB Neuroscience 9 (1): 69-71. https://doi.org/10.1080/21507740.2018.1428239. Link
  • Scholten, M. 2013. "Geen verwijt zonder fout: een Kantiaans−Strawsoniaanse visie op morele uitkomsten−verantwoordelijkheid [No blameworthiness without fault: A Kantian-Strawsonian perspective on responsibility for outcomes]." Algemeen Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Wijsbegeerte 105 (4): 249-253. https://doi.org/10.5117/ANTW2013.4.SCHO. Link

 

Clinical guidelines

  • DGG, DGPPN and DGN. Forthcoming. Einwilligung von Menschen mit Demenz in medizinische Maßnahmen: Interdisziplinäre S2k-Leitlinie für die medizinische Praxis [Informed consent to medical treatment for persons with dementia: Interdisciplinary guideline for clinical practice]. Stuttgart: Kohlhammer. Link

 

Newspaper articles

  • Scholten, M. 2020. "Nieuwe ggz-wet tast privésfeer van patiënten ernstig aan [The new Dutch law on compulsory mental healthcare violates service users’ right to privacy]." NRC Handelsblad, Friday 7 February 2020, 18. Link.

 

Contributions to online magazins

  • Scholten, M. 2020. “Vogelvrij in je eigen huis: De nieuwe Wet verplichte geestelijke gezondheidszorg [An outlaw in your own home: The new Dutch Law on Compulsory Mental Healthcare]. Bij Nader Inzien. Link
  • Scholten, M. 2018. "Een kleine ode aan P.F. Strawsons Freedom and Resentment [A short tribute to P.F. Strawson's Freedom and Resentment]." Bij Nader Inzien. Link
  • Scholten, M. 2017. "Psychiaters kunnen geweldsdelicten voorkomen – maar tegen welke prijs? [Psychiatrists can prevent violent crime - but what is the price?]." Bij Nader Inzien. Link
  • Scholten, M., and J. Gather. 2017. "Conflicting interpretations or conflicting opinions? Being clear about the UN-CRPD." Journal of Medical Ethics Blog. Link

 

 

Presentations

 

  • Odysseus-Verfügungen in der Psychiatrie: eine systematische Literaturübersicht [Self-binding directives in psychiatry: A systematic literature review]. German Conference on Advance Care Planning, Köln, 5-6 March 2020.
  • Ethische Fragen in der Forschung zu Demenz [Ethical issues in dementia research]. Ethics in ageing research, GRADE Center for Aging Winterschool, Goethe University Frankfurt, 27-28 February 2020.
  • Welchen Stellenwert haben psychiatrische Vorausverfügungen vor dem Hintergrund der UN-Behindertenrechtskonvention? [Psychiatric advance directives under the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities]. German Association for Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics (DGPPN) Annual Conference, Berlin, 27-30 November 2019.
  • Sind Unterbringungen aufgrund von Eigen- oder Fremdgefährdung ein willkürlicher Freiheitsentzug? [Does involuntary commitment based on a diagnosis of a mental disorder and perceived risk to self or others amount to arbitrary deprivation of liberty?], German Association for Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics (DGPPN) Annual Conference, Berlin, 27-30 November 2019.
  • Beurteilung der Einwilligungsfähigkeit von Menschen mit Demenz: Empfehlungen aus der AMWF Leitlinie "Einwilligung von Menschen mit Demenz in medizinische Maßnahmen" [Competence assessment for persons with dementia: Recommendations from the AMWF clinical guideline “Informed consent to medical treatment for persons with dementia”], German Association for Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics (DGPPN) Annual Conference, Berlin, 27-30 November 2019.
  • Involuntary commitment based on a diagnosis of a mental disorder and perceived risk to self or others amounts to arbitrary deprivation of liberty. Dutch Research School of Philosophy (OZSW) Annual Conference, University of Amsterdam, 15-16 November 2019.
  • What replaces the locked door? Open-door policies and the use of treatment pressures. HIC, ART & Respite House Congress, Dordrecht, 12 November 2019.
  • A conceptual framework for evaluating the use of informal coercion and treatment pressures in psychiatry. 11th European Congress on Violence in Clinical Psychiatry, Oslo, 24-26 October 2019.
  • What replaces the locked door? Open-door policies and the use of treatment pressures. Workshop on open-door policies in psychiatry, Lovisenberg Diaconal Hospital, Oslo, 23 October 2019.
  • Nachteilige Behandlung aufgrund von Gruppenzugehörigkeit? Selbstbestimmungsfähigkeit, stellvertretende Entscheidungsfindung und Diskriminierung von Menschen mit psychischen Störungen [Disadvantageous treatment based on group membership? Competence to consent, substitute decision-making, and discrimination of persons with mental disorders], German Academy for Ethics in Medicine Annual Conference, Göttingen, 26-28 September 2019.
  • Beurteilung der Einwilligungsfähigkeit von Menschen mit Demenz: Empfehlungen aus der AMWF Leitlinie "Einwilligung von Menschen mit Demenz in medizinische Maßnahmen" [Competence assessment for persons with dementia: Recommendations from the AMWF clinical guideline “Informed consent to medical treatment for persons with dementia”] German Association for Geriatrics (DGG) Annual Conference, Frankfurt, 5-7 September 2019.
  • Forschung mit Menschen mit Demenz: ethische Herausforderungen und praktische Lösungsansätze [Research with persons with dementia: ethical challenges and practical solutions]. Conference on dementia prediction, Bochum, 6 September 2019.
  • Mental health law reform and compulsory treatment in The Netherlands. International Congress on Law and Mental Health, Rome, 21-27 July 2019.
  • The Bochum SALUS project and a conceptual framework for evaluating informal coercion in psychiatry. International Congress on Law and Mental Health, Rome, 21-27 July 2019.
  • Relational accountability without relational obligation: Kantian and utilitarian perspectives. Book Symposium with Jay Wallace ‘The Moral Nexus,’ University of Tilburg, 14 June 2019.10.
  • Einschluss von Menschen mit Demenz in klinische Forschung: Ein Entscheidungsbaum [A decision tree for the enrollment of persons with dementia or minor cognitive impairment in clinical research]. Final Conference ENSURE, University of Frankfurt, 6-7 June 2019.
  • Equality in the informed consent process and the criteria for coercion in psychiatry. Lecture Series Contemporary Issues in Psychiatric Ethics, Institute of Biomedical Ethics and History of Medicine, University of Zürich, 8 May 2019.
  • A decision tree for the enrollment of persons with dementia in clinical research. National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA, 19 March 2019.
  • Competence to consent and the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. American University, Washington, DC, USA, 26 February 2019.
  • Forschungsvorausverfügungen: ein Vorschlag für einen Aufklärungsstandard [Research advance directives: A proposal for a disclosure standard]. German Association for Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics (DGPPN) Annual Conference, Berlin, 28 November - 1 December 2018.
  • Workshop: Sollen wir Zwang anwenden oder nicht? Ethische Herausforderungen bei der Anwendung von freiheitsentziehenden Maßnahmen in der klinischen Praxis [Should we use coercion or shouldn’t we? Ethical challenges regarding the use of freedom-restricting measures in clinical practice]. Dortmund Nursing Symposium, LWL-Clinic Dortmund, 20 November 2018.
  • Einwilligung von Menschen mit Demenz in medizinische Maßnahmen [Informed consent to treatment for persons with dementia]. Ethics working group of the German Society for Palliative Medicine, Göttingen, 16 November 2018.
  • Bij nader inzien: preventief opsluiten [Preventive detention at second glance]. Brainwash Festival, Amsterdam, 27 October 2018.
  • A conceptual framework for evaluating informal coercion in psychiatry. International Conference on Crisis, Coercion and Intensive Treatment in Psychiatry (CCITP), Rotterdam, 18-19 October 2018.
  • Keynote commentary on Astrid Vellinga and Stefan Zonneveld “Recovery, a duty or a virtue?” European Association of Centres of Medical Ethics (EACME) Annual Conference, Amsterdam, 6-8 September 2018.
  • Whom to test for competence? Diagnostic profiling and statistical discrimination. European Association of Centres of Medical Ethics (EACME) Annual Conference, Amsterdam, 6-8 September 2018.
  • Chancen und Risiken von Entscheidungsassistenz im Bereich der Demenzforschung [Opportunities and risks of supported decision-making in dementia research]. Ethics Workshop, German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases, Witten, 18 May 2018.
  • Equality in the informed consent process: Competence to consent, substitute decision-making, and discrimination of persons with mental disabilities. Disability Rights – Future concepts and research from a human rights perspective, Bochum, 5-6 April 2018.
  • Chancen und Risiken von Entscheidungsassistenz im Bereich der Demenzforschung [Opportunities and risks of supported decision-making in dementia research]. Interdisciplinary Workshop: Research in Vulnerable Groups in Psychiatry?, Working group "Ethics in Psychiatry" of the Academy for Ethics in Medicine (AEM), Göttingen, 7 February 2018.
  • Decision-making capacity and competence to consent to treatment and research. Department of Ethics, Keio University, Tokyo, 12 January 2018.
  • Ought implies can, alternate possibilities, and asymmetrical freedom. Department of Ethics, Keio University, Tokyo, 12 January 2018.
  • Decision-making capacity and competence to consent to treatment and research. Department of Ethics, Kyoto University, 11 January 2018.
  • Decision-making capacity and competence to consent to treatment and research. Center for Biomedical Ethics and Law, University of Tokyo, 5 January 2018.
  • Psychiatric risk assessment, involuntary commitment, and discrimination of persons with mental disorders. Values in Psychiatry - An Interdisciplinary Workshop. University Hospital of Psychiatry and Institute of Biomedical Ethics and History of Medicine, University of Zurich, 16-17 November 2017.
  • Psychiatric risk assessment, involuntary commitment, and discrimination of persons with mental disorders. 10th European Congress on Violence in Clinical Psychiatry, Dublin, 26-28 October 2017.
  • Is the functional approach to competence discriminatory? Decision-making capacity, and the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.  World Congress of Psychiatry, Berlin, 8-12 October 2017.
  • Vorausverfügungen und persönliche Identität am Beispiel Demenz: Können wir für unser zukünftiges Selbst entscheiden? [Advance directives and personal identity: can we decide for our future self?]. Cusanuswerk Annual Meeting, Goslar, 5 October 2017.
  • Opportunities and risks of supported decision-making in dementia research: An ethical analysis. Alzheimer Europe Annual Conference, Berlin, 2-4 October 2017.
  • Wer sollte auf Selbstbestimmungsfähigkeit geprüft werden? “Diagnostisches Profiling,” statistische Diskriminierung und die UN-Behindertenrechtskonvention [Whom to test for competence? Diagnostic profiling, statistical discrimination, and the UN-CRPD]. Academy for Ethics in Medicine (AEM) Annual Conference, Hannover, 28-30 September 2017.
  • Opportunities and risks of supported decision-making in dementia research: An ethical analysis. EACME Annual Conference, Barcelona, 7-9 September 2017.
  • Whom to test for competence? Diagnostic profiling and statistical discrimination. Work in Progress Day, OZSW Study Group Philosophy of Responsibility, VU University Amsterdam, 14 July, 2017
  • Whom to test for competence? Diagnostic profiling and statistical discrimination. Christian Albrechts University Kiel, 4 July 2017.
  • Is the functional approach to competence discriminatory? Competence, decision-making capacity, and the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. Colloquium Neil Roughley, University of Duisburg-Essen, 18 May 2017.
  • Is the functional approach to competence discriminatory? Assessing decision-making capacity under the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. OZSW Political Philosophy Meeting, Leiden, 5 April 2017.
  • Can we decide for our future self? Advance directives and personal identity. Study Day Philosophy, University of Leiden, 17 March 2017.
  • Assessing decision-making capacity under the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. OZSW Conference Groningen 2016, 9-10 December 2016.
  • Ist ein fähigkeitsbasiertes Konzept von Selbstbestimmungsfähigkeit mit der UN-BRK vereinbar? [Is the functional approach to competence compatible with the UN-CRPD?]. LWL Clinic Bochum, 5 October 2016.