Peter Carruthers: An architecture for dual systems of reasoning

Many researchers in the field now distinguish between two distinct sets of systems underlying human reasoning. One is swift, unconscious, and intuitive (System 1) while the other is slow, conscious, and reflective (System 2). This talk will take for granted the existence of some sort of real distinction between System 1 and System 2 reasoning processes, and will ask how they are realized in the human mind-brain. In contrast with the usual view of the two systems as distinct from one another, it is argued that System 2 is partly realized in cycles of operation of System 1. But System 2 is also distinctive in being action-based. It is mental rehearsals of action that generate and sustain the cycles of operation of System 1 that constitute System 2. A number of advantages of the proposed account will be detailed, together with some implications for future research

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