The section of the White Sea coast between Cape Voronov and the mouth of the Severnaya Dvina river is called called Zimni Bereg.

The Arkhangelsk region is located in the northern part of European Russia and is bounded by the White Sea, the Barent Sea and the Kara Sea in the north. Toward the east, the region borders on the Komi Republic; to the south, it borders on the regions of Kirov (Vyatka) and Vologda; Karelia lies to the West. The surface area of the region (which also includes islands such as Novaya Semlya, Franz Iosifa Semlya, Solovezkiye Ostrova etc.) is equal to 587,400 kmē: thus, it is larger than France, Western Europe's largest country.

On the shore of the White Sea

The central and southern parts of the region are dominated by rolling plains. In the north-west, the land rises to the Vetrenny Pojaz hills; the Pai-Tshoy hills are located in the north-east. The Timanski mountains (up to 471 m high) run from north to south. The north of the region belongs to the tundra climatic zone. The central part of the region also has bush and forest tundra. In contrast, the region's south is largely taiga. Pine forests dominate about half of the region's surface.

In terms of climate, the Arkhangelsk region belongs to the temperate continental zone. Only the region's north-east has a sub-arctic climate with cool summers and long icy winters. The average temperatures are -12° C in the west and -18° C in the east for January and 16° C in the south and 8° C in the north for July. The average precipitation equals 300-500 mm per year.

Of the Arkhangelsk region's 1,520,800 inhabitants, 92,1% are Russian (1996). Other ethnic groups include Ukrainians (3.4%), Belorussians (1.3%), Komi (0.5%), Nenz (0.5%). 73.6% of the population lives in urban areas.

The profile of the industry is dictated by lumberjacking and timber processing. The most important branches of industry also include the production of cellulose (35% of the entire Russian production), cardboard (over 30%) and paper. The region's agriculture is dominated by cattle-breeding (meat and milk production). In addition, pigs, goats, sheep, and, in the north, reindeer are bred. Fur breeding and fishing are also of great important. Due to the climatic conditions (relatively short vegetational periods) and the nature of the ground (swampy and calcium-rich earth), grain is hardly produced.

Michael Orawski